Neuronal Dystrophy (NAD)
Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (NAD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects Papillons and Phalenes worldwide. The disease is characterized by symptoms including head tremors, wobbling gait and inability to stand or walk. Symptoms appear at a very young age usually between 1-4 months and is clinically characterized by severe axonal swelling with progression to cerebella ataxia, blindness and deafness with most dogs not surviving beyond 1 year of age.
A (CLEAR/NORMAL): These dogs have two copies of the normal gene and will neither develop NAD nor pass this mutation to their offspring.
B (CARRIER/NOT AFFECTED): These dogs have one copy of the normal gene and one copy of the mutation associated with this disease. They will not develop NAD but will, if bred, pass the mutation to 50% of its offspring, on average.
C (AT RISK/AFFECTED): These dogs have two copies of the mutation associated with this disease which results in neurodegeneration and poor survival beyond 1 year of age.